When you click on the links, you can see I have chosen the PMC Database from the dropdown box. This gives you the full article, whereas with other databases you may only get an abstract, or have to pay a subscription.

NCBI Website

I would encourage you to read articles from this site. The information in the Textbook has been gleaned from articles on the NCBI website. I must have read hundreds of articles over the past few years. A lot of the articles are technical, but a glance over the Abstract at the beginning of the articles will give you a flavour. As you progress through the course, hopefully you will understand a lot more of the detail.

Below you will find links to articles that you may find useful. NCBI articles are all peer group verified which gives them an academic credibility. Clicking on the link will open the article in a new tab.

Don’t let technical jargon intimidate you. We can safely skip the methodology bits unless research technicalities is your thing. The primary reason for reading these articles is to help us to formulate an informed treatment plan. So skip read and focus on mentions of limbic reflex areas. Take note of their involvement in the process or condition. This gives us the rationale for including them in our treatment plan.

If you want to search for your own articles then click on this link below. Just type in a word or phrase in the search box and browse. If you find an article that interests you, you may want to download it as a PDF, which you can do by clicking on the PDF at the top of the right hand sidebar.

Articles on Fibromyalgia

Articles on Chronic Pain

Articles on Depression

Articles on Anxiety

Reflex Areas

Janak 2015. From circuits to behaviour in the Amygdala

Uddin 2017. Structure and Function of The Human Insula

GU 2013. Anterior Insular Cortex and emotional Awareness

Zeidman 2017. The Anterior Hippocampus: the anatomy of perception, imagination and episodic memory

Drew 2017 The Modulation of Aversive Memory by Adult Hippocampal Neurogenesis

Mather 2016 Locus Coeruleus and Aging

Grace 2011 Dopamine, Subiculum Schizophrenia and Stress

Herman 2016  Regulation of HPA stress response

Brown 2015 To Ingest or Rest: Specialised role of Lateral Hypothalamus in coordinating energy balance.

Dillingham 2015 Mammillary Bodies and Anterior Thalamus

Daniel 2016  Stress Modulation of Opposing Circuits in BNST

Leech 2014 Role of the posterior cingulate in cognition and disease

Shackman 2011 The integration of Negative Affect, Pain and Cognitive Control in the Cingulate Cortex

Vertes 2015 Limbic Circuitry of The Midline Thalamus

Shelton 2013 Unmasking the mysteries of the Habenula in pain and analgesia

Fettes 2017 Loop Circuits of OFC


Brown 2012 – Control of Sleep and Wakefulness

Sliz 2012 – Reflexology and PCC

Bellesi 2016 – Region-specific Dissociation between Noradrenaline levels and the sleep wake cycle


Liberzon 2016 – Context Processing and the Neurobiology of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder

Maren 2011 – Seeking a Spotless Mind: Extinction, Deconsolidation, and Erasure of Fear Memory A seminal article often cited in other articles on PTSD

Maren 2016 Stress and Fear extinction

Guistino and Maren 2018 -Noradrenergic Modulation of Fear Conditioning and Extinction

Rodriguez-Sierra 2018 – Altered responsiveness of BNST and amygdala neurons in trauma-induced anxiety

Fenster 2018 – Brain circuit dysfunction in post-traumatic stress disorder: from mouse to man

Drew’s 2017 – Modulation of Aversive Memory by Adult Hippocampal Neurogenesis


Naqvi 2014 – The Insula: craving and drug seeking under conflict and risk

Velasquez 2014 – The Role of the Habenula in Addiction

Avery 2015 – The Human BNST. Functional role in Anxiety and Addiction

Vranjkovic 2017 – BNST in drug associated behaviours and affect

Volkow 2019 – Neuroscience of Drug Reward and Addiction


Jason 2011. Kindling and Oxidative Stress as contributors to M.E.

Not recent but a good foundation. Jason a leading light in M.E. Chronic Fatigue. If you want to understand ME, read this.


Goadsby 2017. Pathophysiology of Migraine : a disorder of sensory processing

Dahlberg 2018. PAG in Migraine